References

  1. What is angina? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/angina/. Updated June 1, 2011. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  2. Angina can be stable or unstable. The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Website. http://www.secondscount.org/heart-condition-centers/info-detail-2/angina-can-be-stable-unstable#.WPjLf_krJhG. Updated November 12, 2014. Accessed April 20, 2017.
  3. Coronary artery disease - coronary heart disease. American Heart Association Website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Coronary-Artery-Disease---Coronary-Heart-Disease_UCM_436416_Article.jsp. Updated July 2015. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  4. Angina pectoris (stable angina). American Heart Association website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/SymptomsDiagnosisofHeartAttack/Angina-Pectoris-Chest-Pain_UCM_437515_Article.jsp. Updated July 2015. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  5. How the heart works. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/chd/heartworks. Updated July 1, 2011. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  6. Prinzmetal's or Prinzmetal angina, variant angina and angina inversa. American Heart Association Website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Prinzmetals-or-Prinzmetal-Angina-Variant-Angina-and-Angina-Inversa_UCM_435674_Article.jsp. Updated July 2015. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  7. Microvascular angina. American Heart Association Website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Microvascular-Angina_UCM_450313_Article.jsp. Updated July 2015. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  8. Morrow DA, Boden WE. Stable ischemic heart disease. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012.
  9. About heart attacks. American Heart Association Website. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/AboutHeartAttacks/About-Heart-Attacks_UCM_002038_Article.jsp. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  10. What is a heart attack? American Heart Association website.
    https://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@hcm/documents/downloadable/ucm_300314.pdf. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  11. Percutaneous coronary intervention. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/angioplasty#. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  12. Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J, et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012;60(24);e44-e164.
  13. Cardiac rehabilitation. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/rehab. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  14. Chestnut LG, Keller LR, Lambert WE, Rowe RD. Measuring heart patients' willingness to pay for changes in angina symptoms. Med Decis Making. 1996;16(1):65-77.
  15. Izzo P, Macchi A, De Gennaro L, Gaglione A, Di Biase M, Brunetti ND. Recurrent angina after coronary angioplasty: mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic options. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2012;1(2):158-169.
  16. Edema definition. MedlinePlus website. http://medlineplus.gov/edema.html. Accessed February 27, 2017.
  17. Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, et al. Heart disease and stroke disease statistics - 2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135:e1-e458.

*If you have angina that does not go away with rest or nitroglycerin, get emergency medical help right away.

If you still have angina even though you are getting treatment, talk with your doctor about your options.

The information on this website does not take the place of talking with your cardiologist or healthcare professional.

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